This is the route that the Ojibway people took from the east prior to the arrival of the Europeans. They took this route to fulfill the prophecy about finding "Food on the Water" or Wild Rice. The last and final place that they rested was Madeline Island where Father Baraga would end up serving most of his mission among the Ojibway people. Chequamegon Bay is located just south of Madeline Island.
Subsistence Patterns in the Great Lakes Regions
Locations where Wild Rice could be found when the Ojibway people relocated to the Lake Superior Region
Indigenous Peoples of North America, 1500 CE
Maps 101 Description of Indigenous Peoples of North America.
1500's: Mi'kmac Villages in the Gulf of the St. Lawrence
These are the names of the Mi'kmaq villages that that were in the region that Jacques Cartier explored.
1500's: Ojibway (Algonquin) & Iroquois Indian Nation Distribution
The yellow markers are the Ojibway (Algonquin) nations, the green are the location of the Iroquoian nations and the red are the locations of the Iroquois Indians,
1535: Jacques Cartier Voyages
Jacques Cartier was a French Explorer who was one of the first explorers to map the Gulf of the Saint Lawrence. The Mi'qmac tribe of the Ojibway Nation lived out in this region. It is here that the first French flag was staked laying claim to the land in this region. This region would soon be known as "New France".
1535: Villages during Jacques Cartier's explorations
These are the names of the villages at the time in that region which would later be called "Montreal" and "Quebec".
Samuel de Champlain's 1632 Map
This is Samuel de Champlain's 1632 Largest and Most Accurate Map at that time depicting the Gulf of St. Lawrence all the way to Lake Superior. This was obtained from RareMaps.com
1634: Jean Nicolet's Expedition
Jean Nicolet was sent by Chaplain to explore the Great Lakes Region. He was the first to go to Sault Ste. Marie.
1636-1698: Jesuit Missions viewed from the north
Looking to the south in this map from Canada, one can see the locations of the missions that were being set up by the Jesuit Priests in the 1600's. The first missions started in the New York/Quebec region. The priests then migrated along the route that the Ojibway people took until they started to set up missions around Lake Superior. Father Baraga would end up in this region close to 150 years after these missions were set up. You can click on the link below to see the legend for this map in a different window.
1641-1660: Father Rene Menard Canoe Voyage
Father Rene Menard canoed through the Ojibway lands. These were the three journeys that he made by canoe.
1666: Father Claude-Jean Allouez Map of Lake Superior
This image was created by Father Claude-Jean Allouez in 1666. It shows the connections between Lake Superior, Lake Michigan and Lake Huron.
1672: Jesuit Father Claude Dablon Map of Lake Superior
This map was drawn by Father Claude Dablon in 1672. When Lake Superior was first discovered it was thought that it was the ocean and the western side of the United States. This map shows that they understood at this time that Lake Superior was instead an incredibly large lake, the largest in the world by shoreline.
1672: Jesuit Map Detail of Madeline Island
This map shows the detail of Madeline Island on the southwestern side of Lake Superior and the final resting location of the Ojibway people.
1674: Jacques Marquette Map of Lake Superior
1674 Map of Lake Superior and the Mississippi River done by Jacques Marquette. These photos and a history of these maps can be found in the Journal of Jesuit Studies and are held in the archives of the Jesuits in Montreal, Canada.
1675: Louis Jolliet and Jean-Baptiste Franquelin map of the Great Lakes
1732 -1739: Perre Gaultier de Varennes et de La Verendrye
This map shows the expedition of Pierre Gaultier de Varennes from 1732-1739. He explored Fort Kaministiquia (aka Fort William) on the northern border of Lake Superior.
1763 Treaty of Paris - Map of America
This map was produced right after the Treaty of Paris in 1763 was established. One can click on the link below to see close ups of this map.
1763: Treaty of Paris Territories and Indian Reserves.jpg
1782: French Proposal of North American Territories
This was the French proposal of Territories for the United States in 1782. The United States rejected this proposal and instead the Treaty of Paris in 1783 was established.
1783: Treaty of Paris
This shows the distribution of land between the Spanish, British and French after the 1783 Treaty of Paris.
1700's - 1800's: Cession Maps
This image shows the dates that treaties were enacted with the Native Americans. Father Baraga arrived in Northern Michigan in 1831 prior to the treaty made with the Ojibway people in that region. He established a church on the Grand River on the unceded territory prior to the 1836 treaty. He moved to Madeline Island in 1835.
1821: Map of Lake Superior
In 1821 Wisconsin was a part of Michigan. The red lines in this image indicate the routes taken by Lewis Cass who was the Governor of Michigan Territory in 1820. You can go to the web address below to see a close of view of the region.
1830: Wisconsin Native Villages and Posts
These were the villages near Madeline Island in 1830. One can see that Europeans settlements were not found in this region but rather a majority of settlers lived in the Southern Wisconsin at this time.
1693-1860: La Pointe (Madeline Island)
A Map of the Historic Locations of La Pointe. Fort La Pointe (1718-1759) is where Father Baraga built his first church and where the cemetery is where the major people who lived on Madeline Island are buried including Chief Buffalo and Michel Cadotte.