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The Jesuits Timeline

Father Baraga stepped into the shoes of the Jesuits who came before him.  Known as the black-robes (makate-wikwanaie) to the Ojibwe, their legends were shared from generation to generation long before Father Baraga's arrival amongst the Ojibwe.  

Rene Menard Canoe Voyage.jpg

The Ojibwe and Ottawa tribe was part of the Algonquin Nation which spanned all the way from the gulf of St. Lawrence to Lake Superior.  The famous black-robes were known all around this region as well as they worked with the Iroquois and Algonquin Nations to bring out peace.  This page explores what happened during the timeframe of the Jesuits in relation to what was happening with the Algonquin Nation.

The Jesuits
Algonquin Events


  • October 31: Beginnings of the Reformation of the Catholic Church





















  • Society of Jesus formed by Ignatius of Loyola.  This was the beginning of the Jesuit Order.


  • The beginning of the Counter-Reformation period in the Catholic Church.

1562 - 1598

  • Wars of Religion in France


  • Portugese explorer Gaspar Corte-Real discovers Newfoundland where the Mi'kmaq Ojibway people live.  



  • More explorers arrive from Portugal to Newfoundland. 



  • Fisheries are established in the North-East corner of the United States and the fish and whale were traded in Europe.



  • July 14: Mi'kmaq Ojibway traders traveling in forty or fifty canoes greet French explorer Jacques Cartier at the north entrance of Chaleur Bay.

  • July 22: Stadacona Iroquois encounter Jacques Cartier in St. Lawrence Valley.  They are given glass beads, combs, knives and other goods by the French sailors.

  • Jacques Courtier staked the cross on behalf of the King to establish New France.  


  • July: The Algonkian Ojibway, Huron Iroquois and Montagnais Ojibway encounter Jacques Cartier who returns with three sailing ships and explores the St. Lawrence.  Stadacona settlements of Ajoaste, Starnatum, Tailla, and Sitadin on the north shore are viewed by Jacques Cartier.  

  • September: Jacques Cartier is greeted by the Stadocona Iroquois.  He continues his explorations to the town of Hochelaga. 

  • November: Jacques Cartier returns to Stadacona.    

  • Jacques Cartier voyages through the gulf of St. Lawrence where the Mi'qmac people of the Algonquin nation live.  The villages are named Montreal and Quebec.













  • French court decreed that the Jesuit order would take control of all missionary work among the natives of New France.  


  • Isaac Jogues (Jesuit Priest) arrived to labor amongst the Huron Iroquois in the Georgian Bay


  • Father Rene Menard makes his first journey through Ojibway territory to the Georgian Bay


  • Isaac Jogues (Jesuit Priest) departed for Quebec on official business as a result of the Jesuit Superior.  He was accompanies by Rene Goupil (surgeon) and Guillaume Couture (Carpenter) and a group of Hurons.  As they entered the Saint Lawrence river, they were ambushed by a group of forty Mohawks.  Most of the Hurons were killed and the Frenchmen were taken prisoner to Lake Ontario.  Couture was adoped, Goupil was slain and Jogues was tortured and then enslaved.  Jogues was saved by the Dutch, brought back to France and recovered.  


  • Isaac Jogues went back to Newfoundland/New France



  • July: The Iroquois requested the missionaries after they had concluded a peace treaty with the French.  Father Isaac Jogues established a mission called "The Mission of Martyrs".  



  • Father Rene Menard makes his second journey through to Lake Ontario


  • Father Rene Menard makes his third journey through to Lake Superior

  • L'Anse French Mission established near Keweenaw Bay, Michigan


  • July 13: Father Rene Menard leaves Keweenaw bay

  • Father Rene Menard ends up parishing in the woods.  He is not found again. 


  • Lac des Deux Montagnes French Mission established near Oka, Quebec, Canada.  


  • St. Esprit French Mission established near Chequamegon Bay, Wisconsin.  These are the missionaries that the Ojibway people met prior to Father Baraga's arrival.


  • Ste. Marie French Mission established near Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan


  • St. Francois Xavier French Mission established near Green Bay, Wisconsin.

  • St. Jacques French Mission established near Berlin, Wisconsin



  • The Huron and Ottawa at St. Esprit French Mission on Chequamegon Bay, Wisconsin fled from the Dakota natives and settled at present St. Ignace, Michigan.  During the next two decades several thousand Indians representing many tribes gathered every summer at this location called Michilimackinac for inter-tribal ceremonies and trade.



  • St. Ignatius & St. Francis de Borgia French Missions established near St. Ignace, Michigan.

  • St. Xavier French Mission established near De Pere, Wisconsin


  • Father Claude Dablon made a map of Lake Superior

  • Father Dreuillettes labors at Sault. Ste. Marie


  • Samuel de Champlain began fur trade business in Quebec, Canada


  • French Explorer Samuel de Champlain founded the first permanent French establishment at Quebec.


  • Beginning of the Beaver Wars (Iroquois Wars or French and Iroquois Wars) began for economic dominance in Saint Lawrence River region.  The Iroquois were pitted again the Algonquins and their French allies.  


  • Joseph Le Caron - brought by Samuel de Champlain to Lake Huron from Quebec 


  • Samuel de Champlain made first map of Great Lakes including Lake Superior







  • Iroquois Wars began which involved the French, Ojibway natives and Iroquois natives


















  • July: The Iroquois concluded a peace treaty with the French, Hurons and Algonquins.  










  • Grey Nuns is founded in Montreal, Quebec, Canada



  • Suppression of the Jesuits begins which politically instigated removal of all members of the Jesuits from most of the countries of Western Europe and their colonies.


  • Suppression of the Jesuits approved by the Holy See by Pope Clement XIV



  • Ending of the Beaver Wars (Iroquois Wars)

  • Great Peace of Montreal was set forth which brought a peace treaty between New France and 39 First Nations of North America.  



  • The French Trading Era began in the Great Lakes Region.  Trading was again in full-swing with Europe.


  • British occupied former French posts following a victory over the French in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.  This changed the trading patterns for the Ojibway people who now had to trade with the British




  • Treaty of Paris formally ended the American Revolutionary War.  The British crown ceded most of its territory east of the Mississippi River to the United States


  • North West and Mackinac fur companies formed at Montreal for trading in the region of the Upper Great Lakes


  • September 17: The Declaration of Independence was signed


  • George Washington became First President of the United States



  • John Johnston built a fur-trade post on Chequamegon Bay which is near Madeline Island, Wisconsin​


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