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List of the 1800's Treaties

Below is a list of 1800's Treaties (excluding the first) which affected Father Baraga's Missions.  You can click on the map to expand the map or be brought to the website that has the whole of the map.  With each treaty there is also a link to the treaties written text.  The "Read More" Section gives description of the treaty and the impact that it had on Father Baraga's missions.  
1798 St. Joseph's Island Treaty

1798 St. Joseph's Island Treaty

Treaty Signed: June 30, 1798   

This treaty shows some of the historical context of the interrelationship between the Ojibwe, Britain and the United States as the Algonquin nation lived within the ranges of both Canada and the United States. Father Baraga who worked closely with the Ojibwe would have learned about the history of these individual treaties perhaps prompting his desire to lay under the Niagara Falls on October 25, 1836. After the 1783 Treaty of Paris, which formerly ended the American Revolution, also established a border between the United States and Britain's remaining colonies in North America. Part of the new boundary ran through the centers of Lake Ontarios, Erie, Huron and Superior. Britain signed this treaty without consulting their native allies. The new international border ran through four of the five great lakes. The British maintaned their western frontier posts on the American side of the line for several years after the Treaty of Paris which included locations such as Oswego, Niagara, Detroit and Michilimackinac. The Americans decided to orchestrate British evacuation of these posts through diplomatic means which resulted in Jay's Treaty. New posts were constructed as a result that would ensure the continuation of the fur trade with the Indigenous Populations. To offset the loss of Michimackinac, then Upper Canada's fir lieutenant-governor wanted to obtain the Georgian Bay. Dorchester wanted to reserve resources in the important centers of Montreal and Quebec. Lake Huron then did not receive a post for another 18 months when in April of 1796 he ordered the commander at Michilimackinac to send a garrison to St. Joseph's Island which now served as a meeting location for the Ojibwe. In 1798 a formal agreement was entered into between the Ojibwe and Britain. Father Baraga under Niagara: St. Joseph Island Treaty Info obtained from:

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1820 Sault Ste Marie Treaty

Treaty Ratified: June 16, 1820

The 1820 Sault Ste Marie treaty ceded 16 square miles of land to the United States with perpetual fishing rights given to the Ojibwe. This treaty became important at a later time after Father Baraga became Bishop and had established himself at Sault Ste. Marie. At that time congress took upon themselves to encroach their territory further upon his mission. Father Baraga, upon arrival from a trip to Europe, went to Washington DC to talk to the Secretary of State about the issue. When the issue wasn't resolved Father Baraga bought additional acreage next to his mission to allow for the mission to expand again to it's rightful size. Sources: The Diary of Bishop Frederic Baraga, pg. 58 Treaty of Sault Ste. Marie: Case against 1850 Congressional Act:

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1821 Treaty of Chicago

Signed: August 29, 1821   Treaty Proclaimed: March 25, 1822

The 1821 Treaty of Chicago staged the boundary line that would lie across the Grand Rapids river from Father Baraga's mission in 1833. Father Baraga, like unto Father Bejamin Petit listed in the next treaty, wished to be able to help the Ojibwe stay on their land. He saw that there was opportunity to help the Ottawa stay in this region but ultimately the Catholic Church saw that his desires could cause reprocussions to the reputation of the church itself and so they changed his location from Grand Rapids, MI to Madeline Island in 1835 which was unceded territory at that time. Ottawa view on ceded land:

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1826 Treaty with the Potawatomi

Signed: October 16, 1826   Treaty Proclaimed: February 7, 1827

The 1826 Treaty with the Potawatomi Ojibwe preceded the Potawatomi removal from the region in 1838 which impacted the Ottawa living on the Grand Rapids River in Michigan. Father Benjamin Petit followed the Potawatomi to their new location after their removal which became known as the Potawatomi Trail of death given the number of children who passed away on the journey. Benjamin Petit, like Father Baraga, had a previous history in law and afterwards decided to enter the seminary after receiving such degree and then used their skills. This followed the trend of Catholics who worked towards helping the Natives stay on their land against the wishes of the government which impacted the areas of the Ojibwe and Dakota alike if not further. Benjamin Petit:

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1833 Treaty at Chicago

Signed: September 26, 1833   Treaty Proclaimed: February 21, 1835

The 1833 Treaty at Chicago marked a crucial stepping stone in Father Baraga's Ministry. It was here that it became known that Father Baraga wished not to have the Ojibwe removed from the region and ultimately that if he were to be in the region it would create considerable challenge for the Indian Agents who wished for their removal. Father Baraga participated in a council prior to the ratification of the treaty that proved Father Baraga's stance on removal: History of the Diocese, Vol 1: Pgs 62-63

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1836 Treaty with the Ottawa

Treaty Ratified: March 28, 1836   Treaty Proclaimed: May 27, 1836

The 1836 Upper Michigan Treaty was officially ratified after Father Baraga arrived at Madeline Island. Henry Schoolcraft, whom Father Baraga wrote to for supplies, etc, was the Indian Agent to many of the Ojibwe. On the same day that the Henry Schoolcraft became Superintedent of Indian Affairs for Michigan. During the process of ratification the senate made several changes to the treaty. First, it eliminated the permanent reserves. Second, the Indians were required to pay their debts to the fur traders and then they could keep the remaining surplus. The senate also deleted the reference to a future residence west of Lake Superior specifying that the future location of the tribes should lie southwest of the Missouri River. There also was a stipulation that the proceeds from the sale of lands at the Grand River Mission should go to the missionary society (Father Baraga's Mission Location previous to his departure)

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1837 Wisconsin Treaty

Treaty Signed: June 29, 1797   Treaty Ratified: March 28, 1836

Treaty Signed: June 30, 1798   

This treaty played critical importance to the upcoming treaty of La Pointe where Father Baraga was working at the time. He arrived on Madeline Island in 1835. The treaty payments for this treaty were intentionally placed at La Pointe. The tribes who were a part of this treaty then were given the funds from the treaty and those who were not got to watch it take place. Ultimately the goal was to have the Ojibwe who were at La Pointe and north of this treaty border want to enter into a treaty. In addition, the fur trade had significantly declined and the resources that the Ojibwe had in the region to survive outside of the treaty were in short supply due to the fur trade. The stage was now set for the government to get what they wanted due to the pressures placed upon the Ojibwe.


1842 Treaty of La Pointe

Treaty Signed: June 29, 1797   Treaty Ratified: March 28, 1836

Treaty Signed: June 30, 1798   

Bishop John Baptist Purcell was consecrated the bishop of Cincinnati in 1833 after the passing of Bishop Edward Fenwick. Father Baraga was consecrated as Bishop by the hands of Bishop Purcell in the Cathedral of Cincinnati in 1853.

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1848 Treaty of La Pointe

Treaty Signed: June 29, 1797   Treaty Ratified: March 28, 1836

Treaty Signed: June 30, 1798   

Father Stephen Badin worked with the Potawatomi Ojibwe which was just south of Father Baraga's mission near Grand Rapids, MI in 1833. In 1830 Chief Pokagon traveled to Detroit to request a priest be sent to their region. Father Stephen Badin was asked to accept being that priest. He later donated land for a mission around that area and also donated land to near South Bend, Indiana which later became the site for the University of Notre Dame.


1854 Reservation Treaty

Firth: Unknown  Death: Unknown

Treaty Signed: June 30, 1798   

Father Dejean preceded Father Baraga at the mission on Arbre Crochet in the year 1829 which was two years before Father Baraga's arrival. By the time Father Baraga arrived many of the Ojibwe had already been baptized.

For a full list of treaties affecting the Chippewa (Ojibwe/Anishinaabe/Algonquin) Natives please click here.
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